How to: - 1994 Head gasket replacement / engine pull | Page 13 | Ford Explorer Forums - Serious Explorations

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How to: 1994 Head gasket replacement / engine pull

Prefix for threads which are instructional.
A few pictures to support earlier posts.

1. View inside the head port for cylinder 2, where the rocker pedestal bolt broke the casting. JB Weld repaired.

2. Detail of the surface finish on my heads, on the intake side. You can see how rough the cut is, and I really doubt a rubber lip style seal will work at all on these.

I'd like to add that the head casting includes the word "CIFIC". Research indicates this company makes heads. I don't know if they are related to Pioneer, or what the deal is, but I don't like these heads.

3. Underside of the intake manifold, as I may not have posted this earlier.




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I took the intake back off and carefully scraped all the end seal RTV off.

Compared the 2-piece LIM gasket design to the 1-piece, both Fel-Pro parts. The 2-piece is 1.9mm maximum crushed thickness, going off the integrated crush blocking inserts. There are only 3 inserts per LIM side, which doesn't suggest it is well protected from warpage. I believe 6-8 per would be much better, but the quality of the whole gasket is already lacking so these must be built to a low price already. The 1-piece is 1.45mm before it is even crushed at all, so it should squish even flatter. A preliminary test fit reveals the 1-piece will fit much better in my application.

1-2. The 1-piece gasket. The red spots are nice and tacky. I am adding some RTV around the coolant ports just in case. RTV is used for the end seals; like the 2-piece set, Fel-Pro includes a tube of RTV that is quite adequate.

3-6. The manifold lines up much better with the heads this time. It is not perfect but is close enough for a cork valve cover gasket to do the job. On one side the LIM gasket did stick up slightly, but after the pictures were taken I leveled it with a tiny Swiss file. The gasket appears paper-based but actually has a strong metal inner layer.







I will probably take the valve covers off again to verify pre-oiling, but I decided to assemble them to verify fitment. They would not fit well at all with the thicker 2-piece LIM gasket, but with the 1-piece they are on the tight side of acceptable.

1-4. I am using the Morana Racing valve cover support rail set. I highly recommend this upgrade! These pieces are seriously beefy and come with studs and nuts to mount them. They distribute the clamping force around the perimeter of the valve cover and the studs prevent stripped threads if you go beyond the factory torque spec (my soft heads already have one slightly damaged hole).

Valve covers are being installed with Fel-Pro cork gaskets since I've had the best luck with cork and not the rubber/metal composite styles. They are installed dry except for a dab of RTV at mating point of the heads and intake. Torque spec is 53-70 inch pounds.

5. Fuel rail installed (UPDATED: BACKWARDS :confused:) with a standard Fel-Pro gasket. All O-rings were lubed with a dab of grease or engine oil to ease assembly and prevent damage. Rail studs were installed using an E-7 external Torx socket.






I am getting ready to add oil and prime it through the system. Any tips? Should I be worried about priming it too long?

Also, any recommendations for what break-in oil to use? I know with it being a roller motor, zinc isn't as important, plus my lifters and cam are already acquainted with each other. I plan to run the motor on Mobil 1 10W-30 after break in. I'm using FL-1A filters, changed at every oil change.

Some regular old oil will be good,i always add the lukas zinc additive but probably isnt much help..shouldnt be any issues priming either

Added oil and primed engine with the adapter I made. Instead of a drill I used a cordless screwdriver from Harbor Freight (I've upgraded it internally from 4.8v Ni-Cd to 7.4v Li-Ion). After adding oil, ran it clockwise until oil started coming out the rocker arm holes.

Feels like a huge win because I was so stressed that the cam bearings weren't in right.

Update: Fuel rail is backwards in the picture.



Installing the Cam Position Sensor. This is tricky since I did not mark how the old one came out.

There's relatively little information on installation of this online, so I went off the Ford Service Manual instructions which I'll post here and try to add my own pictures to clarify.

First off, the parts involved.

1. My cam position sensor, which from what I can tell is original at 197k miles. Must be a good one! Research online indicates that A1 Cardone/Bosch units are best replacements. Mine seems healthy enough to re-use for now.

2. The sensor window is clouded over, probably from heat and chemicals. There is only one hash mark visible, which you can see. There's another to the left which I can just barely make out but the camera can't pick up. There's also an arrow which points clockwise. The install procedure assumes you can see through this window, but if it's cloudy like mine you can take the sensor on and off to verify.

3. Removing the two screws, you can gently free the sensor from the body.

4. Sensor removed. There's a half circle that spins, attached to the shaft.

5. The sensor, a simple Hall effect unit. The circle passes through the gap as it spins.

6. Wiring. I marked with paint pens, which corresponds similarly to the wire colors inside the sensor. Red and black are 12v positive and ground. The middle wire is the switched output. There will be switched 12v between this wire and the ground as the sensor operates.








Pics 1-2. Hopefully your damper has a TDC mark. My new one does. Then if you don't have it, add a mark at 26 degrees ATDC. I used some masking tape to mark out the distance, then stuck it on the balancer.

Position Cylinder 1 to TDC, then keep going to 26 ATDC. Verify both intake and exhaust valves are closed; this is easy with the valve cover off because you can see both rocker arms are at the same angle and relaxed. This is the spot in the camshaft's rotation you're dropping/stabbing the CMP in.



Pic 3. Note the marks in the sensor window. There's an early one and a later one. Line up the trailing edge of the sensor rotor (aka vane) with the first mark.


Pic 4-5. Install the sensor straight down into the hole, with the sensor at right angle to the block. If you have it aligned right, it will drop in, and the angled cut on the gears will rotate the sensor shaft as it descends. The rotor/vane trailing edge should line up with the second mark in the window.

Once you verify it is lined up, you can turn the sensor enough to put the hold-down bolt on. Tighten it just enough that the sensor can still rotate, but not lift up out of the hole.



Pic 6. Rotate the engine two full revolutions (clockwise) to take up timing chain slack and return to the TDC mark, then keep going to 26 degrees ATDC mark. Double check cylinder 1 valves are closed.


Pic 7. Now you need a way to trigger the sensor and see it operating, so you can set it. I used a 12v battery, a multimeter, and two test leads.
Connect battery negative to the sensor ground, and the positive to the sensor +12v. Reference previous post to tell which is which. Set up a multimeter to read 12v DC. Meter black wire goes to battery negative, meter red wire goes to the middle (sensor output) pin on the sensor's plug. Now you can see what the sensor sees by watching the multimeter show +12vdc or zero.

Pic 8. If you installed the sensor correctly, when you rotate the sensor through its range of adjustment and watch the voltmeter, it will switch from 0-12v at some point in its arc of travel. If it does not, pull the sensor assembly out and start over again because you're off a tooth. Follow the directions in the picture below and align the sensor exactly at the point the meter switches from 0 to 12v.

Pic 9-10. These two pictures, with the sensor on and off, show where my sensor assembly ended up when I followed the steps. I don't claim they will be the same for your engine! The pink mark in the first picture is where the trailing edge of the vane started before I dropped it in. After aligning it, this is where it ended up.


I find it odd they don't make a sensor alignment tool like the 5.0L.

However, Excellent job and good write up.

I find it odd they don't make a sensor alignment tool like the 5.0L.

However, Excellent job and good write up.
Thanks - There is an alignment tool available; however I didn't feel like buying it and the FSM procedure doesn't require it. It is mainly intended for the later style sensors (1996+) because those don't have a window.

1. Touched up a few paint spots. Flipped my fuel rail around with a new gasket (why didn't anyone tell me I had it on backwards?). Installed engine mount brackets.


2. Old engine bay is crusty. I have a lot to do - pressure washing and steam cleaning later this week.

3. Removed the stock motor mounts. Removing the mounting nuts was a pain. Replacements are Westar brand, nothing special.

Lol i didnt even know it could go on backwards. .notice it now looking back at the pictures,fpr definitely goes on passenger side..good catch though. Shes about ready and looks good

I got tired of posting pictures, made a lot of progress though. Will be updating tonight or tomorrow. Engine is back in, completely re-assembled. Firing it up tonight.

Open to any advice on break in procedures. Since only the pistons+rings and rockers are new, I'm thinking it shouldn't be too big a deal.

Posting from phone so excuse any oddities.

Accessories installed, ready to drop in.


Sonnax billet crank spacer.

Lifted up. Using actual lifting straps this time. I have attached them around the manifolds. Manifold bolts are original because they were in great shape.

Installed flywheel.

Engine in. This is as of Sunday; since then I have installed everything else.

I got tired of posting pictures, made a lot of progress though. Will be updating tonight or tomorrow. Engine is back in, completely re-assembled. Firing it up tonight.

Open to any advice on break in procedures. Since only the pistons+rings and rockers are new, I'm thinking it shouldn't be too big a deal.
These motors arnt hard to break in,the rings aren't to still use cheap regular oil,no synthetic.let it warm up around 1200-1500 rpms..check fluids then take it for a drive and dont be shy about driving it redlines or constant speeds or WOT,take it up in rpms though by means of like 3/4 pedal accelerations..the added pressure will help rings..then change to a part synthetic after about 250 miles,then full synthetic there after..thats how ive brooken in all mine and never had issues

Motor looks good

Found out my battery was dead. Charged it long enough to crank the motor. I shot oil in the cylinders first to make sure rings were well lubed. Then cranked it over with spark/fuel disabled until oil pressure showed.

Had to use a jump box to get the engine to start. Once it did, I had 3 issues.
1. Bad misfire. Temp gun pointed at the manifolds indicated #3 cylinder, but felt almost like two cylinders were down. #3 has good compression and spark.
2. Fuel injectors are all leaking fuel, all over the lower manifold and draining down onto the floor. The injector o-rings are new so unless I got an undersized set I don't see why. I'm picking up a new set of o-rings from a different manufacturer tonight and installing those.
3. Battery light on. Voltage gauge indicated something like 10-12 volts while running. Possibly the flat battery is causing issues. I'm trying again today with a fully charged battery.

I've botched the firing order more than a few times. I'd check that again. As for the fuel injectors, you did it backwards. I always put the injectors in the fuel rail, then work them into the manifold. I don't know why, but they go in much easier. I've tried it your way, and ended up shearing off the o-rings. Twice, actually, once in a parking lot 20 miles from home because I did it wrong the first time. I don't trust the chilton's manuals.

On the o-rings, I kinda like to use 2 stroke oil. Use a q-tip and lube in the recesses and then put a couple drops on the o-ring on the injectors themselves. Mixes with gas and is thick enough to stay in place and shouldn't hurt the rubber or injector. I think I've installed them both ways, in the manifold first and in the rail first. If I remember right, it's easier to start with them in the rail and then push down on the rail while rocking it forwards and backwards, they seem to seat well that way.

Thanks, I believe I did indeed install them into the lower manifold first. A forum search today told me that was the wrong way so I appreciate the confirmation. Maybe I damaged the o-rings. Now I get to try to replace them all without damaging the pintle caps.

I double checked the firing order. Initially I had it wrong last night but corrected it. Going to triple check today.

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Installed new Fel-Pro O-rings on the injectors. Installed injectors into rail and then seated into lower intake. Then I pressed them down - maybe I shouldn't have. Still had some leakage.

Should have done this earlier in the build. Installed test gauge and primed system. At first it would only hold 18psi and the injectors for #3 and #5 were leaking the most. Wiggled and twisted and pushed the injectors down and they started to seal at higher pressures. Got to the point that it would hold about 26psi which I figured was good enough for now because I was tired of messing with it. Figured heat would help them seat and stick to the bores (this seems to have worked).


Started engine. It runs better and doesn't seem to be misfiring so badly. Still seems to be missing a bit. Still have the battery light on - got to check the charging system. Not sure what I could have missed.