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2000 Sport Long term project vehicle

Discussion in 'Elite Explorer Registry' started by 2000StreetRod, October 22, 2009.

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  1. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    City, State:
    Greenville, SC
    Year, Model & Trim Level:
    00 Sport FI, 03 Ltd V8
    Modifications Performed
    Removed side step bars (post #3)
    Replaced single row (1 inch thick) radiator with double row (2 inch thick) radiator (post #3)
    Installed towing wiring and bumper mounted ball (post #8)
    Replaced stock right caster/camber bolts with large range adjustable bolts (post #9)
    Replaced 2 piece right upper control arm with 1 piece arm (post #9)
    Installed throttle cable tensioner to reduce slack (post #10)
    Lowered rear 0.75 inches by replacing monoleaf rear springs with 3 leaves plus overload leaf springs (post #14)
    Installed Edelbrock IAS lowering rear shocks (post #15)
    Installed Akimoto racing air filter (post #16)
    Replaced stock left caster/camber bolts with large range adjustable bolts (post #18)
    Installed Edelbrock IAS lowering front shocks (post #19)

    Lowered front 0.75 inches (post #20)
    Modified front bump stops (post #20)
    Relocated stock external ATF cooler (post #24)
    Added second external ATF cooler (post #24)
    Installed remote full flow ATF filter & temperature sender (post #24)
    Installed remote full flow & bypass engine oil filters & temperature sender (post #25)
    Installed external engine oil cooler (post #25)
    Installed A pillar pod mounted multi-function temperature gauge (post #27)
    Installed two 1.75 inch internal diameter cold air ducts to air filter enclosure (post #28)
    Removed 1 3/4 inch diameter inlet cone from air filter enclosure (post #28)
    Installed wideband O2 sensor in left downpipe & pod pillar mounted wideband air/fuel ratio meter (post #29)
    Replaced stock 65mm throttle body with a Ford prototype 75mm racing ported and polished throttle body (post #31)
    Removed throttle cable tensioner & installed 75mm to 65mm throttle body spacer (post #31)
    Replaced stock 55mm MAF sensor with 90mm Lightning MAF sensor (post #32)
    Designed & built MAF sensor amplifier to compensate for MAF sensor upgrade (post #35)
    Replaced Akimoto cone air filter with Spectre 4 inch diameter outlet cone filter (post #35)
    Replaced petroleum based rear axle lubricant with synthetic lubricant (post #37)
    Installed oil pressure sending unit at oil pressure switch port (post #41)
    Modified A pillar pod muti-function temperature gauge to display relative oil pressure (post #43)
    Modified PCV valve associated hose configuration (post #46)
    Replaced & adjusted mechanical idle speed adjustment screw (post #50)
    Replaced petroleum based engine oil with synthetic oil (post #51)
    Removed MAF sensor amplifier and loaded custom tune from Henson Performance (post #55)
    Painted engine block Ford blue (post #58)
    Painted exhaust manifolds silver (post #58)
    Reinforced thermostat housing (post #60)
    Installed under hood remote starter control (post #63)
    Replaced main intake tube C clamps with T-bolt clamps (post #64)
    Installed Accusump 3 quart engine pre-oiler (post #66)
    Replaced 5R55E reverse servo gaskets with D ring gaskets (post #70)
    Installed Canton Racing 215 deg F thermostat for engine oil cooler (post #80)
    Replaced stock front sway bar bushings & end links with polyurethane bushings & links from Energy Suspension (post #81)
    Replaced stock exhaust system from manifold outlets back with high flow cats, Y pipe, muffler, tailpipe and turndown (post #82)
    Replaced stock fuel pump with Aeromotive Stealth 340 lph high flow pump (post #85)
    Replaced stock 130 amp 4G alternator with custom built 240 amp 4G alternator (post #87)
    Installed Banshee/M90 supercharger (post #88)
    Installed electronic fuel pressure controller (post #90)
    Upgraded electronic fuel pressure controller (post #93)
    Upgraded engine gauges (post #94)
    Modified hood for M90 pulley clearance (post #95)
    Purchased SCT's Advantage III Racer Pro software tuning package to generate my own tunes (post #97)
    Upgraded intercooler heat exchanger (post #98)
    Installed thermostat metal lower housing (post #99)

    Maintenance Performed

    Replaced windshield (post #2)
    Replaced tires with BF Goodrich Long Trail T/A Tour P235/75XL108T 15 inch tires (post #2)
    Replaced hood lift cartridges (post #3)
    Replaced left lower control arm (post #17)
    Installed 00m12 kit intake manifold gaskets, left chain tensioner & oil galley reducer (post #45)
    Replaced PCV valve (post #46)
    Replaced fuel filter (post #48)
    Replaced camshaft timing cassettes, tensioner & guide, primary chain & sprockets (post #56)
    Degunked engine internals (post #58)
    Replaced radiator cooling fan blade (post #59)
    Replaced rear main seal (post #61)
    Replaced water pump (post #68)
    Replaced 5R55E transmission filter, blown valve body separator plate gasket, broken solenoid mounting bracket (post #70)
    Replaced split flexible fuel hose from tank to rigid fuel line (post #74)
    Replaced serpentine belt & tensioner pulley (post #78)
    Repaired rear hatch strikers (post #79)
    Replaced rear axle vent hose (post #86)

    The photos below show my 2000 Explorer Sport that I purchased from a tow truck driver in May, 2009. It had been abandoned on the freeway and the tow truck driver obtained ownership as payment for the towing fee. The only thing that prevented the vehicle from running was a bad camshaft sensor. The tow truck driver replaced it, the spark plugs, and engine oil and filter.
    LSIDE.JPG
    These photos were taken after considerable cleaning and polishing. The external paint is Toreador Red and the interior is gray. The body is in fairly good condition with a few minor dings and no visible rust.
    I purchased my Sport for $3,000 in Concord, North Carolina. It had 150,000 miles on the odometer and was dirty inside and out. Although it doesn't show in the photo below there are multiple cracks in the windshield.
    FRONT.JPG
    I retired on July 4 and decided to search for a smaller SUV to replace my 1997 Tahoe shown in the background. I did considerable research and narrowed my search to a two door. While I have owned Jeeps for most of my driving life, I knew from past experience that the Cherokee Sport made me feel cramped when driving. I also eliminated the Blazer for the same reason. I eventually settled on the Explorer liking the simplicity and handling of front engine rear wheel drive. 2000 was the last year that Ford made the body style I preferred so that's what I looked for. Toreador Red was my first color choice so I was thrilled when an advertisement for one showed up on Craigslist.
    It rained about one third of the way home to Greenville, South Carolina. The cracked windshield caused the windshield wipers to smear which made the drive home somewhat stressful. Adding to the stress was an alarm that sounded about every fifteen minutes because one of the sensors on the rear hatch was misaligned. Another aggravation was failure of the power side mirrors to adjust. I was also concerned about the tires. The original spare was on the right front since one of the tires was flat.
    RSIDE.JPG
    The other three tires had virtually no tread remaining. I drove a maximum of 55 miles per hour when there was no rain and 50 miles per hour in the rain.

    The vehicle was originally purchased in Texas as indicated by the license plate.
    REAR.JPG
    You can see that the left rear is considerably lower than the right. I bought my Sport as a utility vehicle but also as a long term test bed for experimentation. I am an electrical engineer by degree and a former senior systems engineer. I will be trying various performance and fuel economy modifications on my Sport for many years. I intend to keep it for the remainder of my driving years.

    LSIDE.JPG

    FRONT.JPG

    RSIDE.JPG

    REAR.JPG
     
    Last edited: December 9, 2018
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  3. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    City, State:
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    Year, Model & Trim Level:
    00 Sport FI, 03 Ltd V8
    First priorities

    Here are more photos of the vehicle as purchased after cleanup and polishing.
    LFRONT.JPG
    RFRONT.JPG
    LREAR.JPG
    My first priority was to make the vehicle safe to drive. I had a new windshield installed by a local shop that had been in the business for many years. I then purchased a set of BF Goodrich Long Trail T/A Tour P235/75XL108T 15 inch tires and had them balanced and installed.
    LSIDE2.JPG
    The stock wheels turned out pretty nice after several uses of off the shelf wheel cleaner and polish.
     
  4. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    City, State:
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    Year, Model & Trim Level:
    00 Sport FI, 03 Ltd V8
    Hood lifts, side steps & radiator

    The engine is a stock SOHC 4.0 liter V6 (VIN E) rated at 205 bhp maximum as shown below.
    ENGINE.JPG
    Just barely visible on the extreme left is the select length 2x4 that holds the hood up. One of my first repair projects was to puchase and install new hood lift cartridges.

    In my opinion the sides steps are just an inconvenience. The vehicle is not high enough for a normal height person to need the steps. When exiting the vehicle a person must place a foot outward from beneath the body increasing leg strain from reduced leverage. It was obvious from the wear on the outside of seat bottom that people had been sliding along the seat edge because of the side steps. The photo below shows the vehicle after removal of the side steps.
    NOBARL.JPG
    I weighed the steps and mounting hardware and was pleased to learn that I had removed 52 pounds of unnecessary weight.
    I soon noticed an engine coolant leak and traced the source to the radiator. Upon moving the fan shroud away from the radiator I was surprised to see that while the radiator frame was large enough for a two inch thick radiator core the existing core was only one inch thick.
    shroud.JPG
    I did some research on the internet and learned that when the SOHC V6 was first used in the Explorer in 1997 a double row, two inch thick radiator was available. I ordered a double row radiator and replaced the stock single row.
    l_bolt.JPG
    Since then my engine coolant temperature has never risen above normal as indicated on the instrument cluster.

    Below is a much later engine configuration after numerous modifications which output 227 rwhp as measured on a dynamometer.
    EngineBay.jpg
     
    Last edited: November 28, 2014
  5. MrQ

    MrQ Smokey the Clutch is, Missed Shift You Did Elite Explorer Moderator Emeritus

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    '93 Limited
    Nice setup there. Can you fill us in on what testing you will be doing to the ex?
     
  6. Lacky01

    Lacky01 Active Member

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    City, State:
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    Year, Model & Trim Level:
    1998 Sport
    I am intrigued as well!

    this looks almost like my Sport :D
     
  7. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    City, State:
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    Year, Model & Trim Level:
    00 Sport FI, 03 Ltd V8
    Mods & testing

    First I must admit that I am updating this registry after the fact and that several modifications and testing are in various phases of completion. My main purpose is to improve fuel economy and performance using technology that has been available for at least a decade without negatively impacting reliability. I believe that 40 mpg is achievable with normal driving habits. I also suspect that 225 rwhp may be achievable with no engine internal (camshaft, valves, pistons, heads, etc.) deviations from stock specifications.

    My focus will be on improving efficiency by reducing friction from the beginning of the intake system to the end of the exhaust system. I hope to gain 15 to 20 rwhp for each of the following related modifications: intake, exhaust, and serpentine peripherals (water pump, power steering pump, A/C compressor, cooling fan). I hope for another 10 rwhp by reducing engine and drivetrain friction. Fuel economy will also benefit from weight reduction. I have established a 100 mile round trip that includes hills and several different posted speed limits to check fuel consumption.

    Modifications planned or already in various stages of progress include thermostatically controlled cold air intake, 4 inch diameter air intake system, 90mm Lightning MAF sensor, MAF sensor amplifier (MAFSAmp) allowing driver controlled mixture adjustment, 75mm ported and polished racing throttle body, tapered throttle body to upper intake manifold adapter, synthetic fluids, progressive dual exhaust system, and electric motor driven peripherals.

    I have already completed 13 pulls on a local dynomometer to establish a performance baseline. My instrument cluster indicators are supplemented with a wideband A/F ratio meter and ATF and engine oil temperature gauges. I have the capability of monitoring the MAF sensor output voltage from the driver position and also have a portable vacuum gauge. I can observe, record and analyze OBD-II engine related data using my Dyno-Scan Windows based scanner. For my Christmas present I plan to purchase an SCT flasher and tunes from Henson Performance. Eventually, I will purchase the Racer Pro tuning software so I can do my own custom tuning.

    I'm looking forward to learning a lot and having fun during my retirement!
     
  8. MrQ

    MrQ Smokey the Clutch is, Missed Shift You Did Elite Explorer Moderator Emeritus

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    '93 Limited
    Umm, wow. I am going to start off by saying I get a general idea of what you have been doing. Aldive, another member on here, has a thread on his MPG gains on the SOHC. I believe his highest was 35MPG? If you can make it to 40 and share your results, it would make a definite impact on people driving 2nd gen X's.

    Hopefully you will continue to keep us updated on your progress. I run a 1994 Explorer XLT with the 4.0 OHV and have made a decent MPG highway of 25, which for a 1st gen Explorer is excellent.

    Good luck with your testing!!
     
  9. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    Year, Model & Trim Level:
    00 Sport FI, 03 Ltd V8
    towing wiring & ball

    I have a very small kit built utility trailer that I normally use to haul yard waste to the local convenience center and to haul mulch for my yard. I sized and built the container sides to hold exactly one cubic yard when filled to 4 inches below the top. Since the bumper can easily handle the low tongue weight I decided to avoid the cost and weight of a receiver like I had on my Tahoe and Grand Cherokee. While disappointed that there was no trailer connector already installed on a vehicle with an external transmission oil cooler I was pleased to find a trailer wiring connector behind the fuel tank. I purchased a wiring kit for a Ford Explorer from the local auto parts store. It was easy to plug the kit into the connector and route the wiring to the area near where I had mounted the trailer ball. I used cable ties to secure the wiring so that the only time the trailer connector is visible is when it's hooked up.
    HITCH.JPG
    One disadvantage of a bumper mounted trailer ball is that the trailer typically is not level and there is no way to adjust the height like using a dropped hitch mount on a receiver.
    TRAILER.JPG
    An advantage, however, is unloading is slightly easier with the trailer bed sloped downward to the rear.
     
    Last edited: October 25, 2009
  10. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    Year, Model & Trim Level:
    00 Sport FI, 03 Ltd V8
    Front suspension

    For more details:
    Replacing Camber/Caster Bolts

    After replacing the tires I drove my Sport to a locally owned shop for a wheel alignment. When the alignment was completed I was notified that the left inner tie rod end and the upper and lower ball joints on both sides needed replacement. I checked them myself at home in my garage. I determined that the left wheel bearing was loose, the left lower ball joint was badly worn and the right upper ball joint was worn. I torqued the wheel bearings on both sides and ordered a left lower control arm assembly and a right upper control arm assembly. I also ordered a camber/caster bolt adjuster kit for both sides since I planned to eventually lower the body. I ordered the single piece upper control arm assembly for decreased weight, increased strength and reduced cost. The extra adjustment capability of the two piece unit was not needed since I would be using the wide range camber/caster bolt adjusters. When the assemblies arrived I was disappointed that neither ball joint included a grease fitting.

    The photo below shows the new upper control arm and camber/caster adjuster bolts.
    NASSY.JPG

    I replaced the right upper control arm assembly first since it did not require removing the torsion bar.
    The photo below shows the stock two piece upper control arm assembly.
    OASSY2.JPG
    Removal of the stock camber/caster bolts was not difficult and the control assembly replacement was fairly easy.
    OBOLT.JPG
    I used a carpenter's level to adjust the camber because I new it would be a week or more before I attempted replacement of the left lower control arm assembly.
    The completed installation is shown below.
    NASSY2.JPG
    Later, when I had the wheels realigned, I was surprised that my "home aligned" camber was within the specified tolerances.
     
    Last edited: December 12, 2009
  11. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    00 Sport FI, 03 Ltd V8
    Throttle cable mod

    For more details:
    SOHC Throttle Cable Mod

    The engine performance seemed less than what I expected for the rated 205 hp so I started looking for possible causes. The first thing I noticed was the optional floor mat had slipped under the accelerator preventing full depression. I removed all of the optional mats decreasing my vehicle weight eight pounds. Then I propped a pole between the accelerator and the seat back and checked the throttle plate movement. I found a significant gap (identified with arrows in the photo below) between the throttle plate arm and its stop.
    STOP.JPG
    This gap resulted in the throttle plate only rotating to about 80 degrees instead of the desired 90 degrees as identified in the photo below.
    PLATE.JPG
    The last 10 degrees of rotation result in a significant increase in air flow. I was disappointed that Ford had not provided a throttle cable adjustment. I decided to build my own SOHC Throttle Cable Mod.
    The photo below shows the parts I purchased to build the cable adjuster.
    PARTS.JPG
    The following photo shows the completed adjuster installed.
    SOLUTION.JPG
    There is almost no slack in the cable and the throttle plate moves to WOT when the accelerator is fully depressed. I tested the performance on a local dynomometer. The maximum rear wheel horsepower increased between 10 and 15 horsepower with the throttle cable mod.
     
    Last edited: December 12, 2009
  12. Lacky01

    Lacky01 Active Member

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    would you by any chance happen to be a retired engineer of some sort? you are most ingenious!
     
  13. 97sprt4x4

    97sprt4x4 Active Member

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    yes. haha, and he's giving a huge boost to the performance end to our exp's, Keep it up !:thumbsup::thumbsup:
     
  14. Lacky01

    Lacky01 Active Member

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    that proves one of two things:

    1) I wasn't reading the thread

    2) I was reading but not paying attention

    I would like to say that neither of them are true, but I have yet to prove it. :rolleyes:

    [/hijack]

    keep up the awesome work! I like that it's very routine and systematic. should make for consistent results
     
  15. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    00 Sport FI, 03 Ltd V8
    Rear springs

    As I mentioned and was visible in a previous post, my Sport suffered from driver's side sag. Ford chose to utilize a monoleaf spring suspension in the Sport unlike the multileaf spring suspension on the four door models. The photo below shows the stock monoleaf with spacers.
    MONO.JPG
    I decided to replace my stock springs with multileaf springs consisting of three standard and one overload leaf. The photo below compares the stock monoleaf spring with the 3+1 multileaf spring.
    NWITHO.JPG
    I can think of two possible reasons that Ford designed the monoleaf to use in the Sport. One possibility is that a single leaf could have less "wind up" during acceleration. The more likely possibility is weight reduction. The 3+1 multileaf spring weighs considerably more than the monoleaf spring. Unfortunately, the head of the bolt holding the multiple leaves together was too large in diameter to fit in the spring seat.
    BOLTHEAD.JPG
    So I swapped the new bolt with the one in the monoleaf. It was long enough to allow the insertion of one spacer above the multileaf resulting in a lower body height.
    MULTI.JPG
    The resulting height reduction due to the spacer and the different arc and stiffness of the new springs was about 0.75 inch.
     
  16. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    00 Sport FI, 03 Ltd V8
    Rear shocks

    Edelbrock had a national sale on the rear IAS lowering shocks for my Sport that I just couldn't pass up. I had installed IAS shocks on my 1997 Tahoe in the front and rear and liked the better handling both on and off road so I decided to try them on my Sport. The photo below shows the old shock and mounting bolt after being sprayed with Blaster to loosen the nuts.
    OLDSR.JPG
    The photo below compares the IAS lowering shock with the stock shock.
    NWITHOS.JPG
    The following photo (with spare tire removed) shows the lower portion of the IAS shock after installation.
    NEWSR.JPG
    Notice that I replaced the springs and shocks at the same time. And the photo below shows the upper portion of the IAS shock after installation.
    NEWSRU.JPG
    It was rather awkward to loosen the old mounting bolts and tighten the new ones while laying under the vehicle due to the limited space between the body and the mounting nuts. The resulting ride in the rear is very firm which is good for handling but poor for comfort. Eventually, I will have my seats reuphostered to increase lateral support but reduce bottom stiffness. I have not yet loaded the back with enough weight for the overload spring to have an effect.
     
    Last edited: March 28, 2013
  17. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    Akimoto Air Filter

    Edelbrock also had a sale on Akimoto racing air filters used with Edelbrock's turbocharger kits for engines producing up to 350 hp. I couldn't resist the $9.95 with free shipping offer and bought two. The photo below shows the stock air filter enclosure.
    OEMBOX.JPG
    I removed and examined the enclosure and found that even though the stock MAF sensor has a 55mm diameter, the inlet in the filter enclosure is only 1 3/4 inch in diameter as shown in the photo below.
    OEMIN.JPG
    This seemed to me to be a highly restrictive arrangement which I improved with the Akimoto air filter and a MAF sensor adapter as shown below.
    AKIMOTO2.JPG
    The photo below shows the new air filter installed in the vehicle.
    Akimoto.jpg
    The dynomometer tests showed an increase in maximum rear wheel horsepower of almost 15 hp. Incidentally, I was curious to see how much drag the air conditioner compressor placed on the engine. I wired an A/C compressor clutch connector so I could prevent the PCM from disabling the compressor during wide open throttle. I was surprised to find that the maximum rear wheel horsepower was reduced by almost 20 hp.
     
    Last edited: May 28, 2010
  18. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    00 Sport FI, 03 Ltd V8
    Left lower control arm

    As I stated in a previous post the left lower ball joint was excessively worn and needed replacement. Since there was 150,000 miles on the odometer I decided to replace the entire lower control arm so I would also have new bushings. The photo below shows the original lower control arm after disconnecting the lower ball joint from the spindle.
    olcarm.JPG
    In order to remove the lower control arm the torsion bar has to be removed. The photo below shows the torsion bar adjuster lever and its rusted seat.
    tbseat.JPG
    After I removed the bar I cleaned the rust off the seat and coated it with wheel bearing grease. The photo below shows the old control arm after the torsion bar was removed. It is important to raise the frame high enough to allow the control arm to rotate downward until the torsion bar tension is released. This method is safe and requires no special tools to remove the torsion bar.
    olcarm2.JPG
    You can see in the photo that the upper ball joint dust cover is torn.
    And the photo below shows the new control arm after the torsion bar was inserted.
    nlcarm.JPG
     
  19. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    Left caster/camber adjusters

    For more details:
    Replacing Camber/Caster Bolts


    The ends of the caster/camber adjuster bolts are just barely visible in the photo below.
    LASSY.JPG
    The front bolt was more difficult to remove than either bolt on the right side but eventually I was able to work it out. However, the rear bolt was almost impossible to remove and would have required loosening and repositioning lines and simply wasn't worth the effort. So I cut it in half with a hack saw and easily removed the two halves. The photo below shows the rear bolt about half way sawed thru with a 2x4 wedged in place to keep the assembly from moving while I sawed.
    CUT.JPG
    The photo below compares the cut rear bolt adjuster and the replacement adjuster.
    BOLTS.JPG
    I aligned the camber using a carpenter's level pressed against the brake rotor prior to driving the vehicle to a shop for a proper alignment.
     
    Last edited: December 12, 2009
  20. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

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    Front shocks

    I replaced the front shocks after replacing the left front camber/caster adjusters. The photo below shows the left front suspension with the old shock in place.
    oshock.JPG
    I purchased new Edelbrock IAS lowering shocks to match the rear shocks but the sale price for the fronts was not nearly as good as that for the rears. The photo below compares the old and new shocks.
    BSHOCKS.JPG
    Replacing the shocks was easily accomplished. The photo below shows the new shock installed.
    NSHOCK.JPG
     
  21. 2000StreetRod

    2000StreetRod Staff Member Moderator Elite Explorer

    Joined:
    May 26, 2009
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    City, State:
    Greenville, SC
    Year, Model & Trim Level:
    00 Sport FI, 03 Ltd V8
    Front drop & bump stop

    I adjusted the tension on the torsion bars to lower the front 0.75 inches. Unfortunately, the stock downward travel was fairly limited and it was reduced by lowering the vehicle. The red arrow in the photo below identifies the bump stop that prevents downward travel metal to metal contact.
    BUMPSTOP.JPG
    I decided to remove some of the bump stop in a manner that would increase downward travel and provide progressive cushioning. The photo below shows the frame mounting side of the bump stop and the line indicates the section to remove.
    cuthere1.JPG
    The photo below shows the lower control arm contact area of the bump stop and the intended section to remove.
    cuthere2.JPG
    The photo below shows the two pieces after cutting the bump stop with a hacksaw.
    pieces.JPG
    The angular shape results in the progressive cushioning. For slight contact, a small area of material is depressed. As downward travel increases, more area of the material must be depressed.
     

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